Monday, November 6, 2017

C#: Sending mail SmtpClient using of app.config/web.config

Scanning the web I found a large number of examples demonstrating the use of SmtpClient where the email host, port, username, password, etc. was stored in app.config or web.config. In most cases the developer put a few settings in the configuration file and then hard code the remainder of the settings in their C# code. This is frankly a bunch of malarkey.

This is all the code needed to send email (not their is not hard code information about the SMTP server or any of its properties):

using System.Net.Mail; // add a project reference to System.Net

namespace MailSettingsApplication
  public class Mail
    public void Send(
                  string recipient, 
                  string subject, 
                  string message)
      SmtpClient client = new SmtpClient();
      MailMessage mail = new MailMessage();

      mail.Subject = subject;
      mail.Body = message;

The C# code above has not hard coded knowledge of the SmtpClient or the from address used in MailMessage. This fallows the Sergeant Schultz design patter, "I know nothing."

Below are the required settings (app.config or web.config) to send email via for example if you signed up for email using

    <smtp from="sender email here" 
        host = "" 
        port = "587"
        enableSsl ="true"
        userName="put username here" 
        password="put password here" />

if you are not using email then the settings (host, port, enableSsl) can be configured accordingly. 

The code for this blog can be found at under the MailSettingsMaster folder.

Thursday, October 19, 2017

Git: Setting Name/Email from the Command-Line

After logging into to git using your credentials, git knows  you are logged in but does not always know who you are with respect to your name and email. Adding this to  your global git settings is a matter of invoking git config --global as follows:

git config --global "Jan David Narkiewicz"
git config --global ""

Obviously, users should specify their own name and email address when  updating git's global configuration settings.

Monday, October 16, 2017

Windows 10: Logging out of the current Git account

I find myself working from multiple Git accounts while logged into the same Windows login. Normally I use Git exclusively from the command-line but when logging out of Git to insure I can login and receive a new login-prompt, I use Control Panel, specifically the dialog for managing Windows Credentials -- see path:
Control Panel | User Accounts | Credential Manager | Manage Windows Credentials

In order to access this functionality, display Control Panel:

Select User Accounts which displays the following:

Under Manager your credentials select Windows Credentials:

 Notice in the previous screenshot that there are git related credentials under heading, Generic Credentials. To the right of git: click on expand button,

Clicking on this button reveals the following:

The Remove button removes the credential. Remove all git related credentials to be force git to prompt for a new user login.

Sunday, October 8, 2017

C#: Running Google OAuth 2.0 for Desktop Apps on Windows 7

This article demonstrates the code required to make Google OAuth 2.0  for Windows desktop applications work with Windows 7.

Google OAuth 2.0 means that an application can relying on Google's user credentials in order to support authentication. The users of an application can use their GMail address and corresponding password to login to a non-Google application. In order to implement OAuth 2.0 support, there are variety of steps that must be taken from an application registration process and a development standpoint.  Google has created extremely comprehensive documentation with regards to supporting this authentication protocol, "OAuth 2.0 for Mobile & Desktop Apps" and has also provided series of examples on,, that target a variety of Windows desktop configurations. The problem with the Windows desktop samples provided is that they fail on Windows 7.

The solution from example Windows console application from the aforementioned, URI appears as follows in Visual Studio's Solution Explorer:

When this applications run on Windows 7 an exception is thrown and an "Access is denied" error message is displayed:

The specific line at which exception is thrown is line 78 in the following screenshot (the Start method of an instance of the HttpListener class):

The mechanism used to fix the Access Denied error is to "Reserves the specified URL for non-administrator users and accounts" (see "add urlacl") by means of the netsh command with the http add urlacl arguments. Basically this means, the user has permission to create an HttpListener instance and to listen on the URl by invoking HttpListener.Start. In invoking netsh to facilitate URL access is handled by the Process class's (see the System.Diagnostics namespace) Start method. An example of invoking netsh using Process.Start to allow a user to access a specific URL is show as follows:

public static void EnableAccessOnWindows7(string url)
    string domain = Environment.UserDomainName;
    string user = Environment.UserName;
    string commandArgs = 
             $"http add urlacl url={url} user={domain}\\{user}";
    ProcessStartInfo startInfo = 
             new ProcessStartInfo("netsh", commandArgs);

    startInfo.Verb = "runas";
    startInfo.CreateNoWindow = true;
    startInfo.WindowStyle = ProcessWindowStyle.Hidden;
    startInfo.UseShellExecute = true;

The EnableAccessOnWindows7 method is invoked by Google OAuth 2.0 Console Application sample at line 68 to allow the sample to run on Windows 7:

Given the changes made the sample now runs on Windows 7.

Source Code

Normally source code for these posts is made available through Google owns the sample reference and maintains a master copy in their own repository: The code associated with the modifications required to allow the desktop samples to run on windows 7 are included in the body of this post.

Wednesday, September 13, 2017

Configuring Windows to use a PAC File or Proxy Server

This post demonstrates configuring Windows to make use of a PAC file and/or Proxy server. These settings apply to a given user rather then applying to an application that programmatically species a PAC file or proxy server. All .NET applications that adhere to standard programming principles will make sure of the PAC file and/or proxy server information specified for a given user.  As an example, the following rather mundane code will route the request to through a proxy server if one has been configured for a given user on Windows:

class Program
  static void Main(string[] args)
    using (WebClient webClient = new WebClient())
      string str = webClient.DownloadString(


Notice in the above sample there is no code whose purpose is to set up or configure a PAC file or proxy server. It all just works under the covers. The PAC file and/or proxy server can be set using “Auto proxy configuration settings for Internet Explorer.”

As an example of how a PAC File and Proxy can be set using “Auto proxy configuration settings for Internet Explorer” is as follows:

  1. Launch Internet Explorer
  2. Click on the gear icon in the upper right corner and select Internet options:

  1. Click on the Internet options menu item displays the Internet Options dialog. From the Internet Options dialog select the Connection tab (see below):

  1. On the Internet Options dialog, click on the LAN settings button which displays the Local Area Network (LAN) Settings dialog:

  1. The Local Area Network (LAN) Settings dialog is organized as follows:
    1. The group box at the top is entitled “Automatic configuration” and the purpose of this section is to assign a PAC File that can be used by the Windows (including .NET applications).
    2. The group box at the bottom is entitled, “Proxy server” and the purpose of this section is to assign a Proxy Server to be used by Windows (including .NET applications).
  2. To assign a PAC File that will be used by Windows applications configuration the Local Area Network (LAN) Settings dialog as follows:

  1. Note that in the screenshot above that
    1. The checkbox “Automatically detect settings” was checked so that applications will pickup the specific PAC File automatically.
    2. The checkbox “Use automatic configuration script” when checked enables a text box in which a PAC File (which is really a URL pointing to a file) can be specified.
  2. To assign a Proxy Server that will be used by Windows applications configuration the Local Area Network (LAN) Settings dialog as follows:

  1. Note that in the screenshot above that
    1. The checkbox “use a proxy server for your LAN” was checked so that applications will pickup the specific Proxy Server automatically.
    2. The text boxes below this check box allow the proxy server host and the port it listens on to be specified
    3. The checkbox “Bypass proxy server for local address” when checked enables a application to make calls against local host. Such calls are necessary, for example, when performing OAuth authentication against Google. A local browser ( is used to retrieve the authentication code returned by Google.
Notice that there is no way to specify user credentials with regards to the proxy or proxies specified in the PAC file (top portion of the Local Area Network (LAN) Settings dialog). Also notice that there is no way to specify user credentials with regards to the proxy server specified in the lower portion of the Local Area Network (LAN) Settings dialog.  By default applications use the default login credentials to access a proxy server.

Sunday, July 23, 2017

Setting up Apache2 (a web server on which to host PAC files) on Ubuntu

In this posting the steps to setup Apache2 on Ubuntu are reviewed. The reason for needing a web server (Apache2) is to host a PAC file. A PAC file (proxy auto-config) is used to map a URL to a proxy (host/port). The contents are of the PAC file are javascript (a simple script that when invoked takes a URL and returns the string required to access the proxy). Applications access PAC files based on their URL so to develop an application that makes use of PAC files a web server is required.

Apache is a package so on the server run the following to update the package information:
sudo apt-get update

Running the previous commands displays the following:

Once the package information has been updated run the following command:
sudo apt-get install apache2

An example of the previous command's invocation is as follows (a small snippet from a great deal of output):

The status of Apache2 can be verified as follows:

With the previous installation and status check, Apache is not quite ready. The inbound port for apache has to be open.

A web server uses port 80 and on an Azure hosted Ubuntu virtual machine this port is not open. Recall the previous post that demonstrated how to open an inbound port for the Azure virtual machine, Opening an inbound port for an Ubuntu Virtual Machine on Azure. If HTTPS is to be used, open port 443.

Once setup, the next step in order to full support proxies will be to create the PAC file copy it to Apache's content folder.

Tuesday, July 18, 2017

OS/X Dock visible in full-screen VMWare Fusion

A great many developers using Macs run VMWare Fusion in full screen mode. At times (for no apparent reason) OS/X's dock remains visible even though VMWare Fusion is full screen mode.

The solution to this problem to open a terminal window in OS/X and execute the following command:

killall -KILL Dock

The Dock will be deleted and restarted using the above command.